skip to Main Content

Greater Yellowstone
Science Learning Center

Connecting Parks, Science, and People

What’s New

Now Open

Check our availability

  • M-F 9am-7pm
  • Sat 9am-10pm
  • Sun 10am-7pm

We're Close

Ann Rodman and Tami Blackford
Yellowstone National Park
PO Box 168
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming 82190

Come Visit

We are always glad to have you here and we make sure that you visit is worth it.

Park Information

Biological Resources

Nature is a marvellous creation and you will never understand it completely. We have some of the best biological information and we make sure that we impart that knowledge to you as well.


The Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center strives to facilitate science outreach for National Park Service staff, partners, and the public to improve science literacy in relation to the parks.

  • Biennial Scientific Conference on the GYE

  • Bioblitzes

  • Education

  • Workshops
Read More

Volunteer Opportunities

As a crossroads for park managers, scientists, educators, students, and the general public, the Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center is committed to connecting parks, science, and people to the benefit of each. Volunteer opportunities help to maximize those benefits. Volunteers gain knowledge and firsthand experience working with park resources. Park units benefit from extra hands and outside perspectives. Volunteering is also a great way to develop professional skills or to contribute to the preservation of valued resources.

Latest News & Events

What is the correct position on a bicycle? Avoid injuries like this

What is the correct position on a bicycle? Avoid injuries like this

Getting used to riding a bike with the correct posture is essential to avoid knee, back or even wrist pain. It is possible that nothing will happen for one day in an inappropriate position, but if this bad positioning is repeated over time, the risk of injury will increase.

Keep in mind that the correct position to ride a bicycle is different depending on its type. In this article, we will focus on the proper posture to ride an urban electric bike like the Carmela, taking into account key aspects such as the saddle, the handlebars or the placement of the hands and feet. Let’s try the bmx bike for 6ft tall.

How to sit on a bicycle correctly?

correct position on a bicycle

Many people would ask me about the correct way to sit on a bicycle. So, I thought I should write an article on the topic for those who are beginners and don’t know what the right way to sit on a bicycle is.

In order to keep the pressure on the buttocks and abdominal muscles, you must not lean back too much. Also, you should not sit at the edge of the seat because it can cause you pain and injury to the knee. You may also like to read

The most important thing is to sit with your back straight, knees slightly bent and your feet close to the pedal. If you have a big stomach, then your abdomen should be pulled in.

If you think you know everything about sitting on a bicycle, then you can also read the following article.

Sitting on a Bicycle

  1. Sit on a bicycle facing forward, with your legs slightly bent.
  2. Place your hands on the handlebar and hold your bike upright.
  3. Your knees should be slightly bent.
  4. Your feet should be near the pedals, and you should put weight on the front of your seat.
  5. Your butt should be pulled in slightly.
  6. Pull your shoulders up, but do not lean back too much.
  7. Don’t forget to adjust your height according to the bicycle.
  8. You should not sit at the edge of the seat.
  9. Avoid touching the handlebars if you can.
  10. If you’re tired, don’t rush, and stop for a while.

If you’re going to ride on the road, you should make sure that your body is facing forward. In fact, it’s quite easy for you to maintain this posture. However, if you’re going to ride on a track or a path, you need to adjust your posture slightly. You’ll find it easier if you maintain your feet flat on the ground and lift your knees just a little bit. You’ll find it easier if you lift your left knee and bring it closer to the saddle, and you’ll find it easier if you lift your right knee and bring it closer to the saddle.

Correct posture riding a bike according to its type

The first starting from the left is a typical Dutch or English touring bicycle, in which the handlebar is closer to the body and allows riding with the back completely upright (almost 90º of the back with respect to the ground). On the other hand, the second bicycle is also urban but with the handlebars a little more separated. In this case, the angle of the body should be about 60º or 70º.

These first two seek comfort and safety, while the two on the right are designed to cover many kilometers and facilitate pedaling with the maximum possible force. Specifically, the third is a bicycle touring bike, whose torso inclination must be between 30º and 60º, while the last one is a sports bike, whose shape requires an inclination of 15º to 30º, optimizing the force exerted on the pedals and the rider’s aerodynamics.

The correct saddle position: height, tilt and more

Much of the success or failure of our position on the bike will be determined by the position of the saddle. If your height is not correct, we risk knee injury and strain on muscles and tendons.

As we explained in our article on bicycle sizes, urban bikes are one size fits all and do not need to have the saddle as high as sports bikes. The height of the saddle on bikes like Carmela should allow the knee to oscillate between a 70º angle with respect to the torso when the pedal is up and 150º when it is extended with the pedal down. We must never reach 180º (fully stretched) since that would end up causing us injuries.

It is also important, both for comfort and safety, that it is easy to place a good part of the foot on the ground. In the city, we are stopped at traffic lights every few minutes, so stopping and starting have to be easy for us.

The inclination of the saddle, although sometimes we do not give it importance, is another point to take into account. It should always be horizontal to avoid discomfort in the perineal area.

Also, it is important to place your footwell on the pedal. A common mistake in urban bikes is to put the foot in the center of the pedal, but the correct position would be to push with the distal part or forefoot.

The correct position of the handlebars and wrists

Once we have the saddle at the perfect height, we must adapt the handlebar to ensure that the angle of our body when taking the handlebar is between 60º and 70º with respect to the ground. In the case of Carmela Bikes, it is regulated in a studied way so that the ergonomics are correct for all cyclists, whatever their height or arm length.

When taking the handlebar, it is necessary to pay attention to how we put the wrists. The posture of the hand must be straight, without the wrist being flexed in any way, neither sideways nor up or down.

In conclusion, 

This position is a bit more difficult to maintain than the previous two, as the rider has to balance the bike, the rider, and the bike all at the same time. This is why the rider has to have good balance, coordination, and a strong core.

read more
How it affects the length of the cranks of a bicycle?

How it affects the length of the cranks of a bicycle?

One aspect that goes unnoticed by most cyclists is the length of your bike’s cranks. Most of us happily ride our bikes with manufacturer-supplied cranks regardless of their features and whether they in any way affect our performance on the pedals. 

Even when we configure our bicycle through a bike fitting, we usually focus on the height of the saddle, the reach (reach), the shoe/pedal interface and other aspects so that they are in accordance with the functions of our anatomy and thus, obtain the maximum comfort and best performance. However, we generally overlook the importance of the cranks on our bikes.

Not all legs were created equal

How to measure crank length

And although it would seem obvious to think that the length of the cranks of a bicycle responds to the different lengths of legs that cyclists present, this has not always been the case. Well, for years, 99.9% of road and mountain bikes for adults have been equipped with crankarms (cranks) with lengths between 165 and 175 mm.

However, bike and gear manufacturers have realized these differences between riders and have been introducing more sizes because we’re just not all the same and there are riders for whom standard-size cranks don’t work well. You can interested to read also: Womens bikes size guide.

Bicycle cranks with different lengths

Although the options are still limited, today it is possible that we find levers for pedals that vary from 165 to 180 mm in length, and that is only from Shimano and SRAM because other firms are also manufacturing different lengths of cranks that go from 130 to 220 mm. For satisfying the different lengths of legs that a cyclist, man or woman can present. Keep reading

How to measure crank length

There are two ways to know the size of the cranks. One is by identifying the nomenclature that the manufacturer has marked on the part. This is generally located on the inside of the lever, near the hole where the pedal spindle is screwed in. This can vary and be found somewhere else on the inside of the part. 

The other is to measure it directly from one end of the crank, from the center of the bottom bracket to the center of the hole where the pedal spindle is inserted.

Influence of crank size on pedaling

The length of the cranks does not significantly affect the performance of the cyclist since physical performance is determined by the force that the cyclist exerts and the cadence of each pedal stroke. 

However, there is a consensus in which it is thought that when pedaling with shorter cranks, we lose the ability to produce more energy as the lever is shorter. But, on a gearshift bike, this is not the case. 

Well, on a bike with different gears, we change gears to adapt to a shorter lever, so the length of the crank will not make a difference when the pedaling speed is optimal for the rider. The gears compensate for the effect of the crank length.

Crank length does not affect rider performance

A longer crank does not mean more energy and, therefore, more speed since the maximum pedaling force in a cyclist is produced when the pedal is at 12 o’clock. And a longer crankarm, the leg has to reach past the top of the pedal cycle before the same mechanical advantage can be applied, so a longer crank doesn’t mean more torque or force.

But in contrast, shorter cranks are more efficient in the form of the rider’s lower oxygen requirement, where pedal speed along its axis or travel circumference, not cadence, remains the same. 

And since the higher the pedal speed, the higher the oxygen consumption. Where the pedal speed is higher with a longer crank, the pedal stroke cycle is larger in diameter and the need for oxygen increases.

Obviously, these variables are perceptible in high-performance cycling, where a small decrease in the cranks can have a positive effect due to the change of 5 mm in the maximum knee height, taking into account that of those 5 mm, 2.5 mm they are of increase in the height of the saddle and of 2.5 in the crank.

Determine the length of your cranks

There is no single method of knowing the optimal length for your bike cranks. Among the most used are those that are based on the body of the cyclist as a guide, such as this one that is directly related to the height of the cyclist. 

These measurements can be increased between 2.5 mm and even up to 5 mm, in the case of bicycles for competition.

Height Crank length
Less than 1.52 meters. 160 mm
Between 1.52 and 1.68 mts. Between 165 and 167.5 mm
Between 1.68 and 1.83 mts. 170 mm.
Between 1.83 and 1.89 mts. 172.5 mm.
Between 1.89 and 195 mts. 175 mm.
More than 1.95 mts. Between 180 and 185 mm.

Likewise, we have the one that establishes the length of the cranks based on the measurement of the cyclist’s crotch.

Crotch length Crank length
Between 60 and 65 cm. 150 mm.
Between 66 and 70 cm. 155 mm.
Between 72 and 75 cm. 160 mm.
Between 75 and 78 cm. 162.5 mm.
Between 79 and 81 cm. 165 mm.
Between 82 and 83 cm. 167.5 mm.
Between 83 and 86 cm. Between 170 and 172.5 mm.
Between 87 and 90 cm. Between 175 and 177.5 mm.
Between 91 and 94 cm. 180 mm.
More than 94 cm. 185 mm.

With the information collected in this text, anyone will be able to select the correct connecting rods according to their length without causing future damage to the body. 

However, if you want to be sure or have doubts about the correct measurement of your cranks, you can go to a professional to carry out a study to precisely determine the correct value that determines the length of your cranks. Remember that a bike fitting is a mix between science and art, so once again, testing will be essential to be sure about the length of the bicycle cranks.

read more
How to jump a mountain bike for beginners?

How to jump a mountain bike for beginners?

Whether you’re a seasoned cyclist or a newbie, there’s no doubt that mountain biking is one of the most exciting ways to get active and enjoy the great outdoors. With the right equipment, you can make mountain biking a fun, rewarding experience, but it takes a lot of practice and skill to get good at it. If you want to learn how to jump a mountain bike, you’ll need to learn how to ride it correctly and safely first. In this post, we’ll teach you how to jump a mountain bike by showing you how to master the basics, including how to choose the right mountain bike, how to prepare your body for jumping, and how to use your skills to jump the bike successfully. Also, you can check out the best mountain bike hydraulic brakes.

How to jump a mountain bike for beginners?

How to jump a mountain bike for beginners

Step 1: Start with a good trail: Start with a good trail. You need to start with a smooth, flat trail that will provide you with the stability and control you need.

Step 2: Prepare your body: You need to prepare your body for the jump. Make sure your body is in good condition. Stretch your legs and arms. Do some jumping jacks or pushups.

Step 3: Practice the jump: Practice the jump on a flat, smooth trail. You don’t want to make any mistakes when you’re jumping off a mountain bike. Keep reading

Step 4: Practice the jump: Practice the jump on a mountain bike. Start with a low jump, and then gradually increase the height of the jump.

Things to consider while jumping a mountain bike

  1. You need to get your balance right. Mountain bikes have a tendency to jump around a lot when you’re jumping them. This means you need to be able to control your bike as it’s jumping. You’ll want to make sure you’re not too heavy or too light.
  2. You need to get your feet set. You’ll want to make sure you’re standing on your feet and that you’re in the correct position. This will ensure you don’t fall over when you start jumping the bike.
  3. You need to get your hands set. You’ll want to make sure you’ve got a firm grip on your handlebars. This will ensure you can steer your bike and that you’re not going to fall off.
  4. You need to make sure you’re comfortable. You’ll want to make sure you’re not uncomfortable when you’re jumping the bike. You’ll want to make sure you’re wearing enough clothing. You’ll also want to make sure you’re wearing the right footwear.
  5. You need to be safe. You’ll want to make sure you’re wearing a helmet. You’ll also want to make sure you’re wearing the right clothing and that you’re wearing the right footwear.
  6. You need to be confident. You’ll want to make sure you’re comfortable and that you’re confident in your ability to jump the bike. You’ll also want to make sure you’re wearing the right clothing and that you’re wearing the right footwear.
  7. You need to have fun. You’ll want to make sure you’re enjoying yourself when you’re jumping the bike. You’ll also want to make sure you’re wearing the right clothing and that you’re wearing the right footwear.

Tips to prepare your body for bike jumping

  1. There are many different ways to prepare your body for bike jumping. Some people like to do a lot of stretching, while others prefer to warm up by doing some yoga. It’s up to you how you want to prepare.
  2. Find out what your body needs: The first step is to find out what your body needs. You’ll want to make sure that you’re prepared for the jump. You’ll want to make sure that you’re not going to hurt yourself or that you’re not going to injure your back.
  3. Do some research: If you want to make sure that you’re safe, you’ll need to do some research. You can find information on the internet, or ask your friends if they know anything about bike jumping.
  4. Start doing yoga: Once you’ve done your research, it’s time to start doing some yoga. You might want to do some warm-ups before you jump. You might also want to do some jumping jacks. You could also do some yoga poses to help prepare your body.
  5. Find a good spot: You’ll want to make sure that you’re in a good spot. You might want to do some jumping jacks, or you might want to find a spot where you can jump. You might want to look for a spot that’s high enough for you to jump from. You might also want to make sure you’re close enough to a wall or a fence.
  6. Practice: Once you’ve found a good spot, it’s time to practice. You might want to jump as many times as you can, or you might want to do some jumping jacks. You might also want to practice jumping off of something, such as a chair. You could even try doing it in the shower!
  7. Jump: Once you’ve practiced, it’s time to jump. You might want to jump off a chair, or you might want to jump off a bench. You could also jump off a ladder.
  8. Warm-up: Once you’ve jumped, it’s time to warm up. You might want to do some jumping jacks. You might also want to do some stretching exercises.
  9. Get your bike ready: You’ll want to make sure that you’re ready for your bike jumping. You might want to make sure that your bike is safe and that you’re not going to hurt yourself. You might also want to make sure that you’re not going to injure your back.
  10. Jump! Once you’ve got everything ready, it’s time to jump. You might want to jump off a chair, or you might want to jump off a bench. You could also jump off a ladder or even a fence.

Jumping a mountain bike is a skill that takes practice and experience to master. It’s a good idea to find a local mountain bike park or go to a mountain bike course. You’ll want to make sure you’re practicing on a safe, flat area of the ground. You’ll also want to make sure you’re wearing the correct safety equipment.

You should be trying to jump as high as you can, but you shouldn’t try to jump too high. You’ll want to make sure you’re going to land safely and that you’re not going to fall off. You’ll also want to make sure you’re going to be able to get back up.

You should be patient when you’re jumping a mountain bike. You should be able to stay calm and relaxed while you’re jumping. You should also be able to remain focused. Get feedback from people who know how to jump a mountain bike. You should ask them for advice and for tips on how to improve your skills.

read more
How to help a newborn babies sleep?

How to help a newborn babies sleep?

The first few months of a newborn’s life can be the most challenging time for any new parent. Newborn babies need lots of attention. They also sleep a lot, which makes it difficult for parents to get anything done. However, babies aren’t born with a natural ability to sleep. As a result, they don’t know how to fall asleep or stay asleep. 

How to help newborn babies sleep?

Step 1: Try different methods: If you’ve tried everything and still aren’t able to get your baby to fall asleep, try different methods. Try swaddling the baby. Swaddle the baby in a blanket. Place the baby in a bassinet or crib. You can also try placing the baby on a pillow, or a flat surface, or even a hammock.

Step 2: Use your senses: The next step is to use your senses. Try using your senses to help your baby fall asleep. Try changing the temperature. Turn on the fan or air conditioner. Try putting on a white noise machine. Try reading a book or magazine.

Step 3: Try white noise: If none of the other methods work, try using a white noise machine. A white noise machine will help mask the noises that are making your baby awake. Keep reading

Step 4: Try soothing music: If you’re not able to use a white noise machine, try using soothing music. Try listening to classical music, or listening to natural sounds like birds chirping or rain falling.

Step 5: Try rocking: If you’re still having trouble getting your baby to sleep, try rocking the baby. You can hold the baby in your lap, or you can rock the baby in your arms.

Step 6: Try a warm bath: Try taking a warm bath with your baby. You can also take a warm bath with your baby. Find out the baby swing for bigger babies.

What to do if the newborn babies are not sleeping?

Tips to make newborn babies sleep

Step 1: Find out why the baby is not sleeping: Ask yourself why the baby is not sleeping. Are there any medical reasons why the baby isn’t sleeping? Is the baby getting enough to eat? Is the baby getting enough exercise? Are the baby’s needs being met?

Step 2: Try a different method: If the baby’s needs are not being met, try a different method. If you’re breastfeeding, try nursing the baby on one breast at a time and see if that helps.

Step 3: Go to a doctor: If you’re not able to solve the problem, go to a doctor. There could be a medical reason for the baby not sleeping.

Newborn and Baby Sleep Basics 

  1. The first thing you should do is read up on newborn and baby sleep basics. This will give you some basic information about what you should be doing when it comes to newborn and baby sleep.
  2. Understand your baby’s needs: The second step is to understand your baby’s needs. You’ll want to know what your baby needs so that you can provide the best possible care for them. You’ll also want to make sure that you understand how to deal with any problems that may arise.
  3. Prepare your environment: The third step is to prepare your environment. This includes things like making sure your baby is comfortable and that they have everything they need.
  4. Get into a routine: The fourth step is to get into a routine. This is an important step because it will help you to make sure that you’re providing your baby with the best possible care. You’ll want to make sure you get into a routine that works for you.
  5. Make sure you’re not putting your baby at risk: The fifth step is to make sure that you’re not putting your baby at risk. You’ll want to make sure you’re not putting them in situations where they may be exposed to harmful chemicals or harmful substances.
  6. Take it slow: The sixth step is to take it slow. You’ll want to make sure you’re taking things slowly and that you’re not rushing things. This will help you to make sure you’re doing things correctly and that you’re not causing any harm.
  7. Monitor your baby: The seventh step is to monitor your baby. You’ll want to make sure you’re checking on your baby regularly so that you can keep an eye on them. This will help you to make sure that you’re providing them with the best possible care.
  8. Get some sleep: The eighth step is to get some sleep. You’ll want to make sure you’re getting some rest so that you’re able to provide your baby with the best possible care.
  9. Be consistent: The ninth step is to be consistent. You’ll want to make sure that you’re being consistent with your newborn and baby sleep basics. This will help you to make sure you’re providing the best possible care for your baby.
  10. Monitor your baby’s development: The tenth step is to monitor your baby’s development. You’ll want to make sure that you’re keeping an eye on their development so that you can make sure they’re developing as they should.

Things to consider about Newborn and Baby Sleep 

  1. The most important thing to consider when choosing a bed is comfort. You don’t want to sleep on a bed that is uncomfortable. You’ll want to make sure the bed is soft and has a good quality mattress.
  2. The second most important thing to consider is the size of the bed. You don’t want to buy a bed that’s too small. You’ll want to make sure you have enough room to move around in.
  3. The third thing to consider is the firmness of the bed. You’ll want to make sure you’re comfortable when you’re lying down on it. You don’t want to be too soft or too hard.
  4. The fourth thing to consider is the design of the bed. You’ll want to make sure the bed looks nice and that it’s easy to clean.
  5. The fifth thing to consider is the color of the bed. You don’t want a bed that is too bright or too dark. You’ll want to make sure the bed is light enough to sleep in but dark enough to keep the room cool.
  6. The sixth thing to consider is the size of the bed. You don’t want a bed that’s too small. You’ll want to make sure you have enough room to move around in.
  7. The seventh thing to consider is the size of the mattress. You don’t want a mattress that is too big. You’ll want to make sure the mattress is large enough to fit your child.
  8. The eighth thing to consider is the size of the bed. You don’t want a bed that’s too small. You’ll want to make sure you have enough room to move around in.
  9. The ninth thing to consider is the design of the bed. You’ll want to make sure the bed looks nice and that it’s easy to clean.
  10. The tenth thing to consider is the color of the bed. You don’t want a bed that is too bright or too dark. You’ll want to make sure the bed is light enough to sleep in but dark enough to keep the room cool.

In conclusion, as a new parent, you may be overwhelmed by the sheer number of things you have to do. It’s hard to imagine that you’ll have time to get all the things done that you need to, let alone get any sleep. However, there are a few simple steps that you can take to help you get some much-needed rest. The first step is to establish a bedtime routine for your baby. Establishing a good bedtime routine can make a huge difference in your baby’s sleep. You can also set a bedtime schedule for yourself, so you can get some sleep.

You may also be interested in Is a bike trainer good exercise?

read more
Is a bike trainer good exercise?

Is a bike trainer good exercise?

The stationary bike is a simple, lightweight machine that resembles a bicycle. It is an excellent tool for improving cardiovascular fitness and gradually building up your stamina and muscular strength. The stationary bike can be used in conjunction with other exercise equipment such as the treadmill or rowing machine, but it can also be used as a stand-alone piece of exercise equipment. The stationary bike’s main advantage over the treadmill is that it allows you to perform exercises at home or in the office, which is perfect for people who work out at home or who do not have access to large gyms.

Are stationary bikes worth it?

The stationary bike is one of the most popular pieces of exercise equipment on the market. It is an excellent choice for people who want to combine cardiovascular exercise with muscle strengthening, even if they do not have access to a gym. The stationary bike is also a good choice for people who are looking for an alternative to running, jogging or walking. 

You will find that the stationary bike stands provides a good workout and that you can use it in conjunction with other pieces of exercise equipment. The stationary bike is also a good choice for people who are looking for a low-impact exercise method. Unlike running or jogging, the stationary bike does not provide a high risk of injury, which makes it a good choice for people with joint problems. Keep reading

Best way to use the bike

The stationary bike can be used in conjunction with other pieces of exercise equipment such as the treadmill. If you are interested in training your legs, you should choose exercises that involve standing on the pedals and pedalling at an easy pace. You can also use your legs while riding on an incline or while stopping and starting. If you want to focus on your arms and shoulders, you can choose exercises that involve pedaling backward or pedaling at an easy pace while standing on one leg. You should also consider choosing exercises that involve using the handlebars of the stationary bike for rotation or resistance training. These exercises will help increase your upper body strength and balance, which will help prevent injuries.

There are also numerous resistance bands that you can use while cycling. These bands are available in various shapes and sizes, and they can be used to increase the intensity of your workout. You can also use them to add resistance to a stationary bike exercise session, which will help increase the intensity of the workout.

You should also consider installing a home gym in your house or apartment if you want to keep up with your exercise routine. A home gym provides many benefits, including the ability to train at any time of day, no matter where you are located. Home gyms also allow you to avoid some of the costs associated with purchasing specialized gym equipment and membership fees for a fitness center.

How does it work?

The stationary bike consists of two pedals at the front and one pedal at the back. When you pedal, you move both legs simultaneously through a range of motion while maintaining constant pressure on each pedal’s footrest. To build up your stamina and endurance, you should alternate between pedaling fast and pedaling slowly for intervals of time ranging from 30 seconds to several minutes, depending on your fitness level. When using a stationary bike, you should never focus on how fast or how fast you are going. Instead, your focus should be on holding steady pedaling for the entire duration of the workout.

The benefits of using a stationary bike trainer

The benefits of using stationary bikes include:

– It is a low-impact exercise that can be used by people of all fitness levels.

– It is good for building up muscle strength and endurance.

– It requires little time, effort and money to purchase.

– It helps you burn fat and lose weight

How to choose the best stationary bike trainer?

There are many different brands of stationary bikes on the market today, which makes it difficult for you to know which one is best for you. However, there are several features that should be considered when buying a stationary bike:

Pedals: The pedals used with these machines have different numbers of holes drilled into them. The more holes the pedals have, the harder it will be for you to move them forward or backward. You should choose a bike with pedals that have between 24 and 32 holes in order to train your legs at any pace without having to worry about changing gears too quickly. Since it takes time for your muscles to adapt to the new demands of your legs, make sure you don’t use the highest level of resistance on these pedals.

Handlebars: The handlebars used with these bikes are usually adjustable in order to accommodate different heights. The handlebars should be able to be adjusted both vertically and horizontally in order to allow you to work out at an optimal level.

Seat: The seat on a stationary bike is made of foam or vinyl and is usually covered with a pad that is made of cloth or leather.

Pedaling Effort: You should choose a stationary bike that allows you to change the amount of effort being exerted by your legs without changing the resistance level. This will allow you to increase or decrease the intensity of your workout as needed without having to do any extra work on your own.

Resistance: Resistance is how much force it takes for your legs to move forward (or backward) when using these machines. If your resistance level is too high, it will take you longer to pedal and your workout will be less intense. If you’re resistance level is too low, you won’t be able to pedal as fast and your workout will not be as effective.

Stability: Stability refers to the ability of the bike to stay in place while you’re exercising. This allows you to focus on your workout without worrying about the bike tipping over or moving around on its own.

Weight Capacity: Weight capacity determines how much weight you can put on a stationary bike before it becomes uncomfortable. You should choose a stationary bike that is rated for your weight so that you can use it comfortably without straining yourself.

Warranty: A warranty doesn’t mean that a company or manufacturer will fix or repair every problem with their product, but it does mean that they have an obligation to make sure their products are working properly at all times. Having an extended warranty is a good idea since it will protect against unexpected mechanical breakdowns or other mishaps during normal usage.

Price: The price of a stationary bike should be proportional to the quality of the product. You should always buy from a reputable manufacturer so that you can be sure that their bikes will last for a long time. If you want to save money, you can choose to buy used stationary bikes online or at flea markets.

read more
How do you sit on a cruiser bike?

How do you sit on a cruiser bike?

If you want to be the coolest kid in town, then you need to know how to sit on a cruiser bike. It’s not as easy as it looks. A lot of people have tried sitting on a cruiser, but very few have succeeded. So, I’ve taken the liberty of doing some research on this subject and I’ve compiled a list of tips for sitting on a cruiser bike.

How do you sit on a cruiser bike?

How do you sit on a cruiser bike

Step 1: Sit with your knees bent, the seat low and close to your body, and your feet on the ground. This will keep your legs in line with your back.

Step 2: Lean forward slightly, and don’t lean back. Your body should be as upright as possible.

Step 3: Don’t let your butt hang over the saddle. Keep your weight evenly distributed between your legs and your seat.

Step 4: Don’t put your hands on the handlebars. Put them on the grips instead. This will help you maintain balance.

Check out the schwinn ladies beach cruiser.

Tips for sitting on a cruiser bike

  1. You’ll find that you’ll have to adjust your position on the bike a few times during your journey. You’ll need to make sure that your seat is comfortable. You’ll also want to make sure you’re sitting in a comfortable position.
  2. Make sure your back is straight. You’ll want to make sure you’re sitting in a straight line. You’ll also want to make sure you’re sitting in a comfortable position.
  3. Make sure your feet are placed on the pedals. You’ll want to make sure you’re sitting in a comfortable position and that you’re not sitting too high or too low.
  4. Keep your body upright. You’ll want to make sure your body is upright and that you’re sitting in a comfortable position.
  5. Don’t lean forward. You’ll want to make sure you don’t lean forward. If you lean forward, you’ll find it difficult to balance on the bike. You’ll also find it uncomfortable.
  6. Hold on tightly. You’ll want to hold on tightly to the handlebars. You’ll also want to make sure you’re holding the handlebars firmly.
  7. Make sure you’re wearing a helmet. You’ll want to make sure you’re wearing a helmet and that you’re wearing it correctly.
  8. Make sure you’re wearing a back protector. You’ll want to make sure you’re wearing a back protector and that you’re wearing it correctly.
  9. Make sure you’re wearing a knee protector. You’ll want to make sure you’re wearing a knee protector and that you’re wearing it correctly.
  10. Keep your hands in a relaxed position. You’ll want to make sure your hands are in a relaxed position. You’ll also want to make sure you’re holding the handlebars firmly. Keep reading

More things to consider

Sitting position: You’ll need to know where to sit on the bike. You’ll want to make sure you’re comfortable and that you can see where you’re going. You’ll want to make sure that you’re not leaning too far forward or backward and that you’re not too high or low. You’ll also want to make sure that your feet are at the correct height.

Gear: You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got the right gear. You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got a helmet and that you’ve got the right kind of shoes. You’ll also want to make sure that you’ve got the right kind of bike.

Clothing: You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got the right clothing. You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got the right clothes and that you’re wearing the right kind of clothes. You’ll also want to make sure that you’re wearing the right type of clothes.

Helmet: You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got the right helmet. You’ll want to make sure that you’re wearing the right helmet and that it fits well. You’ll also want to make sure that you’ve got the right kind of helmet.

Bike: You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got the right bike. You’ll want to make sure that you’re riding the right kind of bike and that you’re comfortable with it. You’ll also want to make sure that you’ve got the right kind of bike.

Bags: You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got the right bags. You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got the right bag for your bike. You’ll also want to make sure that you’ve got the right kind of bag.

Helmet strap: You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got the right helmet strap. You’ll want to make sure that you’re wearing the right kind of helmet strap.

Handlebar: You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got the right handlebars. You’ll want to make sure that you’re riding the right kind of handlebars and that they’re comfortable.

Saddle: You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got the right saddle. You’ll want to make sure that you’re riding the right kind of saddle and that it fits well. You’ll also want to make sure that you’ve got the right kind of saddle.

Seat: You’ll want to make sure that you’ve got the right seat. You’ll want to make sure that you’re sitting in the right kind of seat and that it’s comfortable. You’ll also want to make sure that you’ve got the right kind of seat.

The correct position to sit on a cruiser bike

With the bike in the upright position, sit on the saddle with your feet on the pedals and your hands on the handlebars. With your arms extended, gently lean forward until your body is parallel to the ground. Slowly lower your legs to the ground, using your knees to help you. Reach down and grab the handles of the bike with your hands. Keep your back straight as you stand up. Return the bike to the upright position and remove your hands from the handles. Stand on the pedals and gently push the bike away from you by pushing your feet against the ground.

In conclusion, the best way to sit on a cruiser bike is to put the seat in the lowest position and lean forward. The key is to keep your back straight and lean back slightly when you want to get up. This will allow you to easily get off the bike without having to lean back too far.

read more
Choosing the right bike: Differences between men and women

Choosing the right bike: Differences between men and women

When it comes to choosing the right bike, few cyclists (and female cyclists) focus on the anatomical differences between men and women, assuming that a bike designed for a man is good for a woman. In this article, we go to see the anatomical differences between men and women to take into account when choosing the right bike.

Choosing the right bike: Anatomy matters

When we have to choose the right bicycle for us, the most important procedure is the collection of anthropometric measurements. The calculation of the correct frame size for us will then follow. In addition to this, however, it is equally essential to evaluate two aspects: general flexibility and muscle strength. For better workout, try Mongoose mountainbike.

The first aspect will determine the ability to maintain a more aggressive position on the bike. A cyclist with a high degree of flexibility will be able to opt for frames with greater reach and stacks and therefore adopt a more “recumbent” riding position compared to the more contracted cyclist.

Similarly, the ability to generate muscle power on the pedals will affect the performance of the bike and its driveability, so cyclists with very powerful limbs will need bikes with stiffer frames to avoid excessive dispersion. Let’s now look at the anatomical differences between men and women when it comes to choosing the right bike.

Let’s evaluate the differences between men and women in the three aspects that we have previously analyzed: anthropometric dimensions, flexibility and muscle strength.

Anthropometric dimensions

We take a cue from the Global Body Dimension Database, a list of anthropometric parameters created over decades of studies on various world populations.

If we are going to compare a male cyclist and a female cyclist of the same stature (for example, 170cm):

The woman has about 1.2% shorter bust than the man;

The lower limbs of the man will be about 1.4% shorter than those of the woman;

The upper limbs will be similar, even if, on average, the woman has a length greater than 0.2%;

In terms of body fat, for the same height and weight, women have a higher percentage of fat mass than men. This is determined by various factors. We think of a slower metabolism (which favors the accumulation of fat) and the need to have a greater reserve of man. This depends on the fact that, in some periods of life, she will have to cope with the greater energy demands of pregnancy;

The pelvis of the woman will be wider than that of the man (at the level of the femoral truncates but not of the ischial tuberosities). The legs will tend more to varus (the woman will have the knees more “X-shaped” than the man);

They seem like minor differences, but they make a difference when it comes to choosing the right bike.

Muscle flexibility

Let’s imagine having to have our 170cm tall man cyclists carry out a simple test that we analyzed in the previous paragraph. The test is called “Sit and Reach.” It is a test that evaluates the general flexibility of the posterior muscle chain and that allows us to understand the ability to remain in stretched positions.

The test is simple: the cyclist is seated on a bed with his legs stretched out. Then he is asked to reach his toes with his hands, keeping his legs straight. Who could do it best? Definitely, the female cyclist, since women have greater muscle flexibility and greater joint mobility than men. This is largely due to the phenomenon of ligamentous hyperlaxity. Women’s joints tend to be less stiff and more extensible than men’s. Keep reading, How to select the electric scooter for yourself?

Muscle strength

For centuries it was believed that women were “the weaker sex,” but this is not quite the case. Let’s take a study carried out by LIV, the Giant group company that produces specific frames for women cyclists. In a study, LIV evaluated the muscle activation and power generated by a group of female cyclists and cyclists. Power is the result of force for speed, i.e., the force generated by the muscles and pedaling cadence. In the study, men and women pedaled at the same power and cadence. The activation of the four muscles that make up the quadriceps was evaluated: rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and vastus mediasis.

It has been seen that women tend to activate their quadriceps more than men. This has an influence on the pedaling gesture and on the forces that are discharged on the frame.

Still talking about muscle strength, women have a greater relationship between the strength of the lower and upper limbs than that of men. The ability to generate muscle power generated by the legs of a woman cyclist is technically greater than that of a man of equal weight and height. And if this does not happen in reality, it is because power does not only concern muscle strength but also other more neurological aspects. Let’s think, for example, of the recruitment of motor units, the cadence of sending impulses and intra and intermuscular coordination.

Why a woman is different?

We have tried to explain, scientific evidence in hand, why a female cyclist is actually different from a male cyclist. Apart from the aspects concerning reproduction, we have seen how women have a physique that is on average more slender and flexible than that of a man and that they tend to pedal using different muscle strategies.

What does this crack into?

We can read it in this key: a woman needs a bike with a frame that is thought of on these characteristics and that is not simply a man’s frame painted with more captivating colors. Among the characteristics that a women’s bike frame must have, we find a relationship between the length of the horizontal tubes and different columns, a greater rigidity at the level of the bottom bracket, to withstand the greater stresses caused by a different thrust and a ratio between the crank arm and the optimal saddle, in order to favor the activation of the rectus femoris, which is a main feature in the female cyclist.

Bottom line

When it comes to choosing the right bike, we need to take these differences into account and manufacturers should too. Among the proposals on the market, we can certainly remember the aforementioned LIV, which with its frames made on the basis of the characteristics and needs of women.

read more
Endangered animals disappearing from our planet

Endangered animals disappearing from our planet

We can say that Spain has one of the richest biodiversity in all of Europe, but we can also say that it is among the most fragile, we have many endangered animals.

Every year the international union for the conservation of nature IUCN produces a document where we can see the species that are in danger of disappearing mainly due to human activities. We currently have more than 1000 endangered species in Spain. We are going to share with you some of the most important ones, before we begin, we will comment that an animal is in danger of extinction when all the representatives of the same species run the risk of disappearing from our planet.

1. Black stork

Another of the species that are in danger of extinction and are very difficult to see in our geography. Both in shape and size, they are very similar to that of the white or common stork that we are all used to seeing. The big difference is its black and glossy plumage where its underparts are white. Its habitat is in remote forests such as mountains in the south of the peninsula, it does not nest in areas close to man.

2. Iberian lynx

This is one of the highest endangered animals of the entire group of amphibians and mammals. The Iberian lynx is a feline much larger than a domestic cat, it looks like a wild cat. Its main characteristic is its robust appearance, its long legs, and its short tail with a black tassel at the end, which it usually keeps upright, beating it in times of danger. The specimens of this have been very threatened to the point of their disappearance. Fortunately, after more than 20 years of fighting for his species, he has multiplied considerably.

3. Brown bear

Endangered animals Brown bear

The Bear, called Eurasian as a rule, lives in the northern Cantabrian mountains. This is a very shy animal, avoid human contact whenever possible. Hunting these specimens was legal until the 1960s, so there are currently specimens in Spain. The brown bear is characterized by its thick and dense coat, it has a small tail (barely 7 or 8 cm) and a huge head. It is the largest land animal of all the Iberian fauna.

4. Cantabrian grouse

Like all the species we have mentioned, this bird is in a critical situation. This species is located in the north of Spain where there are less than 500 specimens. The main reason for the disappearance of this bird is the creation of tracks and infrastructure, climate change or the low reproduction rate. This species is very similar to other grouse and chickens, it has a length of 55 to 90 cm. The females are somewhat smaller than the males.

5. Giant lizard

Endangered animals Giant lizard

Exclusive in an area of ​​four hectares on the island of El Hierro in the Canary Islands. This specimen can grow up to two feet in length. Now it is considered an endangered species mainly due to the predation of wild cats and dogs in the area. As main characteristics we will comment that it can reach an extraordinary size of about 60 cm, it has a broad head especially in adult males, and a long and robust tail.

6. White Imperial Eagle

This noble bird resides in the center and southwest of the peninsula. It is one of the seven rarest birds on the entire planet. In Spain, it is very vulnerable to hunting, deforestation, and pollution. The main characteristics of this majestic bird are the dark brown color in almost all of its body, dotted with white on the shoulders and wings.

7. Basque whale

This incredible mammal is known by this name since the Basques were the first to hunt it and sell it in the market. At present, it is almost extinct. It is characterized by measuring up to 17 meters and weighing about 50 tons. It has a large arched head and lacks a dorsal fin. The color of it is totally black and it has peculiar black beards that can measure up to two meters.

8. European mink

This mammal is one of the most threatened in Europe. It has brown fur with white color around the lips. It is a small carnivore with semi-aquatic habits. Males measure about 55 centimeters including the tail, and females 45.

Wonderful environmental conservation work is underway, but there is still a long way to save endangered animals. From AEMA we contribute our grain of sand to this great fight with our environmental impact studies and many other mechanisms.

I am in favor of animal rights, as well as human rights. That is the way of a complete human being ”, Abraham Lincoln.

You may also like to read Herbivorous Dinosaurs: names, types, and characteristics

read more
How to pet a dog you don’t know?

How to pet a dog you don’t know?

It has always been said that the dog is man’s best friend and, although this phrase is very old, it is also true that the dog is the domestic animal that has best adapted to humans and, therefore, the most loved by them. In addition, it is indeed inevitable to humanize their gestures and their attitude even knowing that they are not of our species. In fact, if they were, you wouldn’t come close to petting them that fast.

Be that as it may, dogs and humans coexist with perfect normality, dogs need their masters and masters need their dogs, and it is that when you come across one of these magnificent beings, their tenderness catches and you want to caress them, well no you find another way to communicate with them. However, it is important to know to what extent dogs receive these caresses with the same nuance that you give them. In this article, we provide you with some tips to know how to pet an unfamiliar dog or your own.

How to pet a dog?

Wondering where they like to be petted? It is important first to attend to the dog’s attitude before acting to make sure that he wants you to pet him, too. You really should only approach them when you see in them the desire to do so. And how to start petting a dog? When you do it, you should know that it is not good to stretch your arms a lot. Again it is something that can be violent or intimidating to them. In the same way, it happens if you hug them.

Well, you should caress it gently and in the direction of hair growth to not hurt it. Likewise, in all cases, it is always better to do it gently and with love.

Observe their behavior

It is not that complicated to realize when a dog wants to say hello and when, on the contrary, he does not like you or simply does not want to say hello. Dogs are territorial but also extremely friendly and helpful. Be it slower or faster, with more or less excitement, when a dog wants to say hello, he approaches without thinking, wags his tail, and holds such a tender look that you cannot help but stop and immediately release the typical “ooooh.”

However, there are times when dogs, for various reasons, can feel tense and act defensively. Barking and growling aggressively or simply staying still in a lean position is a very clear gesture that the dog does not want you to approach, much less touch it. A key sign of knowing that a dog doesn’t want to be petted is staring at you. Do not ignore this gesture because he intends to let you know that he does not want to be disturbed at that moment.

Watch your movements

You don’t necessarily have to be one of those people who have no respect for animals. Sometimes it is enough with not being attentive or not being fully aware of what the presence of a dog means, and we must not forget that dogs are not human beings and that their instincts differ from yours more than you imagine. For example, when a dog is on the lookout for something else, if you pet it, you can scare it. And as we said before, you must consider if he also wants to interact with you. And depending on how you bring your hand to his head to caress him, the gesture can seem like an attack. It is more advisable to appear smoothly from one side and not from top to bottom.

It is also important to know that, as with humans, a visual order is imposed when someone approaches from above that becomes an exercise of power and a threat to the one below. Things work well when we are at the same height. Well, we provide you with a key tip: you must bend down to pet a dog. He will feel much more comfortable.

Where to pet a dog?

Where the dog will receive physical contact is also important. Like humans, animals also have more erogenous or sensitive areas, areas with more or fewer nerve endings that vary the amount and type of pleasure. Although you always tend to approach the head, this is not the most pleasant place for them, but behind the ears. The best points to caress a dog are: the chest, the end of the back, the neck area, and the chin are places that they love. You can see it as soon as you caress them in these areas since they will raise their heads, inviting us to continue.

On the other hand, dogs do not want to be touched on the back, the legs, the muzzle, or the upper part of the ears. But just try once and see his reaction. It will be enough just once. You should stop trying because he will not be comfortable. And depending on the dog in question, your insistence may mean that it tries to defend itself.

With these tips in mind, nothing can go wrong when showing affection to these furry friends. A minimum of empathy and respect is enough. In addition, if you practice it to do it well, petting can bring benefits and be of great help for the health of these animals and your own. These displays of affection and warmth are effective remedies for your stress. By helping them calm down, you will be counteracting their cardiovascular problems and happier. When words fail us, gestures are everything!

You may also like to read, Secrets of successful wildlife watching

read more
These are the most dangerous animals for humans

These are the most dangerous animals for humans

Humans adore animals and because of that, we tend to have pets to care for and be friends with. This occurs with the dog as one of the ideal pets par excellence, whose characteristics mean that it connects perfectly with humans. However, it should be borne in mind that there are certain animals, or certain cases, in which this combination of humans with animals could be dangerous.

Here we tell you what are the most dangerous animals for humans

  1. The dogs

Dogs are the perfect companion for humans, we cannot have any doubt about that. However, it must be borne in mind that in order to have a furry as a pet, it is necessary to educate and take care of everything necessary to earn their love and respect. Otherwise, we may not be your friend, but your enemy. It would be then that the canine would become a threat to us. And this, unfortunately, happens on quite a few occasions. This would also have to do with the dog’s own temperament. We have data that proves this: according to the Encyclopedia Britannica, between 1982 and 2013 some 466 people were killed by dogs in Canada and the United States.

  1. The lions

The lion is the king of the jungle, and this is so, it is for something … Nobody dares to face a lion, a spectacular animal of great beauty, but also of great temperament and strength. A confrontation between a human and a lion would only turn out well in a science fiction movie. Such is the strength of a lion that it can eat 3 4 kilos of meat in a single meal and rest for a whole week until it hunts again. Tanzania is the birthplace of lions and there, according to recorded data, lions are known to kill approximately 100 people a year.

  1. The bears

In the same way, it would not be a good idea to try to fight a bear. Specifically, bears anthills giants are a protected species in Argentina and one of the animals dangerous in the world, even though they have no teeth. Let’s not forget either the brown bears and the polar bears, equally very dangerous. It should also be taken into account that the bear’s hatred of humans would be linked to its danger of extinction due to factors such as hunting.

  1. The horses

We cannot say that horses are dangerous, but rather that there are a lot of accidents due to riding. With the practice of this sport, it is known that in the United States around 100 people die a year. In any case, horses are a great ally of man, having been used for centuries to plow the field, transport goods and passengers. In the same way, they have been battle companions in all the wars that occurred up to the 20th century.

  1. The tigers

Even more dangerous is a tiger, which is known to kill 50 to 250 people a year in  India and Bangladesh in this area. Undoubtedly, these cats can be the most dangerous animals of all, especially for survival reasons, that is, tigers are carnivores and therefore, in extreme cases, they will look for food anywhere.

  1. The hippos

Interestingly, hippos are one of the most dangerous animals in   Africa, in fact, they are known to cause far more deaths than even a lion could. This has to do with their strong jaws and long fangs, in addition to their enormous weight. As with other dangerous animals like them, they are in danger from poaching and the deterioration of their habitat.

  1. The deer

In the same way, although it might not seem like it, the deer is one of the animals that causes the most deaths in the United States, claiming more than 200 lives each year. In addition, and unfortunately, they frequently cause a large number of motor vehicle accidents on the roads by invading the lanes to cross them. Again, this has to do with the fact that their natural habitat is being taken away from them and that is why they end up being present in more urban areas.

You may also like to read, 10 animal species where they are the leaders

read more
The most aggressive animals in the world

The most aggressive animals in the world

There are very aggressive species, some by the pure instinct of violence and others when they are threatened, the best thing is to know and respect them so as not to suffer bitter experiences, regardless of whether they are large or small or walk alone or in a group.

In this article, we briefly describe ten of the most aggressive and dangerous animals in the world, without the order of exposure necessarily constituting an exact scale of danger.


From the cartoons, it would seem that these plump animals are all cute, but nothing could be further from the truth. Hippos can run at speeds of up to 50 km per hour and attack anything that dares to invade their territory. In fact, they are responsible for the death of 3,000 humans on average per year, and females will not hesitate to protect and harm anyone who tries to approach their young.

Saltwater crocodiles

Many point to the saltwater crocodile as one of the natural predators with the greatest predisposition to attack and devour humans. This reptile up to 5 meters long manages to be very stealthy and camouflage itself perfectly with everything around it, to carry out a perfect attack, in which its prey does not know what is attacking it until it is too late. It is said that it has the strongest bite on the planet and it uses it to drag its prey to the depths and drown it, and then devour it with greater tranquility.

Rates or badgers

As silly as it really is, the honey badger is popular for being one of the most aggressive animals on the planet. They can fight with lions grown for a meal and endure as many bee stings as possible, as long as they get the liquid they enjoy the most: honey. In fact, it is quite common to find a specimen on the verge of death near a hive, due to the punctures it received while trying to feed or a glutton.

Such is the danger of this rate, that it cannot be confined in zoological parks since it would attack anything that bothers it or intervenes in its territory.

Assasins bees

Resulting from a failed experiment that mated African and European bees in search of more honey, killer bees are extremely dangerous animals. No matter how small they are and that they only attack if provoked, this is a species that must be taken care of very well, because when it attacks it does so in large groups and the victim will always leave with more than one bite.

Bull sharks

With the strongest bite of any known shark species, the bull shark has the highest record of attacks on humans in shallow water. They do not discriminate to feed and that is how they attack small fish the same as dolphins and even other kinds of sharks.

As a fierce predator of nature, the bull shark adapts to different habitats and that is how it has been found even in freshwater lakes, where it is also one of the most aggressive species on the planet.


Baboons are the most aggressive primates. It is known that when they feel threatened they chase their prey until they fight, but with that same predisposition, they fight each other even to the death, to gain dominance in the group. Aggression becomes even greater in males when it comes to their females; they are very jealous of them and if they disapprove of their behavior they beat them with extreme violence.

Black mamba

Black mambas are the fastest snakes on the planet and one of the most poisonous. Just two drops of its neurotoxic venom, against which there is no known antidote, are enough to quickly kill a human. They attack based on the fear of feeling threatened, but they feel that way as soon as something gets too close to them and since they habitually live entangled in the trees, it is difficult for a potential victim to know when one is close to them to provoke their attack. Hence it’s a high danger.

Wolverine or glutton

The wolverine is the longest member of the weasel family and although they appear cute and charming, they are dangerous and aggressive by nature. These small mammals weighing only 15 kilos are capable of defeating predators such as wolves and fully grown bears, making them aggressive animals that must be taken care of.

Gray wolves

A pack of gray wolves can take down prey as large as a moose without much mishap. When they hunt they do so without mercy and begin to devour their victims even before they are completely dead.

Such is the aggressiveness of this species that, even when its prey outnumbers it and are just as violent, its main cause of death is territorial fights between two or more specimens.

Wild pig

Wild boars are famous for their aggressive temperament and their predisposition to fight and attack. Whatever habitat or space they reach, they manage to become an invasive species, which must be respected and feared. Contrary to popular belief, finding them today is not very difficult, since they have become common in many forests on all populated continents. So, in order not to meet them, it is best to be careful.

You may also like to read: The 11 types of animals nature and their characteristics

read more
The 11 types of animals nature and their characteristics

The 11 types of animals nature and their characteristics

7,770,000. According to the latest research, this is the estimated number of animal species that inhabit the Earth. In any case, of these 7.77 million species, a little over 950,000 are currently described.

Therefore, despite knowing an incredible number of different animal species, there are still more than 88% undiscovered, with the marine ones remaining the most secret.

The richness and variety of animals on our planet are enormous. For this reason, biology has devoted a great deal of effort to taking all these hundreds of thousands of species and dividing them into different groups.

In today’s article, we will see this classification, detailing the characteristics of all these species in the different groups.

How are living things classified?

what is a living being? Ironic as it is, something so natural and seemingly easy to answer continues to be one of the biggest problems for biology.

Broadly speaking, we can consider a living being as any structure made up of cells (although there are organisms made up of only one) that, through communication systems and organs and/or tissues, make up an organism with the ability to nourish itself, interact and reproduce.

And this includes from the simplest bacteria to ourselves, through plants, algae, fish, jellyfish, dogs, fungi, parasites, and even sea sponges.

Despite being incredibly varied in anatomy, behavior, and physiology, any structure with a greater or lesser degree of independence that can feed, relate to the environment and other organisms and give offspring, is a living being.

But how many species of living things are there on Earth? Taking into account the number of bacteria (by far the most diverse in terms of a number of species), plants, fungi, and animals, it is believed that on Earth there could be more than a billion species of beings different living.

Therefore, despite the fact that the world already seems to us an incredibly varied place of living beings, we only know 0.1% of the total species, because of these one billion, we currently know little more than 1 million species.

What is an animal?

An animal is any living being that differs from plants, fungi, bacteria, etc., by the fact that it ingests food (the others absorb it), it has a sexual reproduction (others do it asexually without the necessity of a “partner”), absorbs oxygen through respiration and, although there are exceptions, usually has the ability to move.

Therefore, within the animal kingdom, there is an incredible variety since there are many different ways to perform these actions: carnivorous or herbivorous animals, animals that acquire oxygen from the air, and others that do so from water, large animals, and others almost microscopic.

Next, we will see what solution biology gave to this enormous variety of animal species since one of the greatest needs of this science is to classify the different forms of life that inhabit the Earth.

The 11 groups (or types) of animals

According to aspects related to its physiology, anatomy, metabolism, habitat, etc., biology has been able to create groups in which to pigeonhole each of the more than 950,000 species of animals that we know to date.

Although there are different ways of classifying, one of the most recognized is the one that divides into two large groups depending on whether the animal has a backbone or not, one of the most important features in terms of the physiology of living beings.

  1. Vertebrate animals

Vertebrates are all those living beings that meet the previously described characteristics of animals and that, in addition, have backbones and bones (or structures of equal functionality).

This causes that the animals corresponding to this group have a similar structure with head, trunk, limbs, and tail (although some, like humans, have lost it during evolution). Another characteristic that vertebrates fulfill is that they have their body surrounded by some structure that surrounds their skin.

This is where we find from humans to snakes, through salmon, elephants, bears, frogs, turtles, etc.

1.1. Mammals

Mammals are vertebrate animals whose main characteristic is that fetal development occurs inside females. And that later, the offspring feed on the milk from the mother’s mammary glands.

Another of the main characteristics of mammals is that they have the most developed central nervous system in nature, which allows them to perceive stimuli and respond to them in very complex ways. Thanks to this, mammals are able to anticipate dangers that they know can be harmful.

In addition, another of the common features of mammals is that the skin, in most cases, is surrounded by hair, something that other groups of animals do not have and that they are warm-blooded beings, that is, They are able to maintain their body temperature regardless of the environment.

We know more than 5,400 species of mammals: dogs, horses, elephants, rats, lions, bears, monkeys, and, of course, humans. They do not have to be on the earth’s surface, since bats are mammals despite being able to fly, in the same way, that dolphins are, although they are aquatic organisms.

1.2. Birds

Broadly speaking, birds are animals specialized in flying. Although some of the species have lost the ability to do so throughout evolution. Its main characteristic is that its skin is covered with feathers.

Except for bats, which are mammals, they are the only animals capable of flight, something that is achieved thanks to the presence of wings, anatomical structures with the necessary muscles to allow active flight. Along with mammals, they are the only group of warm-blooded animals.

In addition, all birds have a beak, which replaces the teeth of mammals. In this case, they reproduce through eggs, that is, fetal development does not occur inside the female. Therefore, despite the fact that fertilization is internal, the young develop in the eggs until they hatch when the individual is ready to be born.

1.3. Fishes

Fish are the animals that inhabit aquatic environments, so they must be adapted to these. For this reason, fish have skin covered in this case with scales and breathe through the gills (they do not have lungs), organs that allow them to capture oxygen from the water.

Despite the great variety of morphologies, fish have fins that allow their movement in the water, both fresh and salty. They also have what is known as a swim bladder, an organ that allows fish to ascend and descend in the water without problems. Thanks to this structure they are animals that function as “submarines”.

In this case, the reproduction of the fish is not only through eggs, but fertilization is not internal. The females expel the eggs and the males release the sex cells to fertilize the eggs outside.

They are cold-blooded animals, that is, they are not capable of regulating their body temperature. So they depend on the conditions of the environment.

Fish were the first vertebrate animals to populate the Earth 400 million years ago. Therefore, all other vertebrates, including us, come from them.

1.4. Amphibians

Amphibians are vertebrate animals whose main characteristic is that they undergo a metamorphosis, that is, they undergo very large morphological changes to stop being young and becoming adults. The first phase of its cycle (tadpole) is in water and the second, on land. Hence its name comes from the Greek “amphi” (double) and “bio” (life).

Their skin, unlike all other animals, is not covered by any structure (not hair, scales, or feathers …) since it is through it that it captures oxygen with a process known as skin respiration. Also, some species have poisonous glands in the skin that secrete toxic substances.

They have reproduction similar to that of birds since fertilization is internal (there is copulation between male and female) but fetal development occurs in the eggs that are laid in the water, from which the tadpoles will come out.

They are cold-blooded animals, so they must always be kept moist to preserve their body temperature. That is why amphibians are always near aquatic environments, as they must constantly be with water on their skin.

Frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians are some of the most common amphibian examples.

1.5. Reptiles

Reptiles are vertebrate animals whose main characteristic is the presence of scales on the skin. And the fact that they are cold-blooded, so they cannot keep their body temperature. In this case, however, unlike amphibians, reptiles tend to stay in the sun.

In addition, reptile respiration is always through the lungs. Even crocodiles, sea turtles, and other aquatic reptiles breathe through these organs. These have a very high lung capacity and reduce their metabolism to go underwater for a long time without breathing.

As a result of this slow metabolism, it is common for reptiles, despite hunting fiercely and being very efficient predators, to need a long period of rest after having eaten, as digestion takes a long time.

Reptiles have reproduction similar to that of birds and amphibians since fertilization occurs inside the female but she lays the eggs outside, where the individuals will develop.

Many reptiles, moreover, are the only animals that have developed poisonous glands in their teeth. Examples of this are many snakes and Komodo dragons.

They are one of the oldest groups of animals on Earth (in their day they came to dominate it). And we have snakes, turtles, crocodiles, iguanas, chameleons, lizards …

  1. Invertebrate animals

We completely change the group and enter that of all those animals that do not have backbones. Invertebrates do not have any internal skeleton that allows their articulation. Although it may seem strange, they constitute 95% of all the animal species that we know today.

They are incredibly varied in morphology. So one of the few characteristics they share is that they reproduce by means of eggs.

2.1. Arthropods

They are the most diverse group of invertebrates. In fact, it is estimated that 90% of the animals on Earth are part of the arthropods. They live in any environment and have a protective structure that covers them, articulated legs. And the body divided into head, thorax, and abdomen.

Insects, spiders, ticks, scorpions, crustaceans (crab, lobster, shrimp …), centipedes, millipedes, etc. All of these are arthropods.

2.2. Mollusks

Mollusks have a soft body that is often surrounded by a hard shell. They can live both on land and in the sea and we have snail, slug, limpet, oysters, mussels, clams, octopus, squid …

2.3. Echinoderms

Echinoderms are marine animals with a body divided into two sides. A hard upper part and a soft lower part where the mouth is. Starfish and urchins are the main representatives of this group.

2.4. Worms

The worms have a soft body that is not surrounded by any protective structure and whose main characteristic is that they move by crawling. The worms, the leeches, and even the anisakis or the tapeworm are some of its representatives.

2.5. Sponges

Also known as poriferous, sponges are animals without the ability to locomotion. As they live anchored to the surface of rocks on the seabed. They are the simplest invertebrates since they do not have a nervous system or any other type of organ. Anyway, they capture food and oxygen through their pores or holes, where they have cells designed for it.

2.6. Cnidarians

Cnidarians are very simple aquatic invertebrates without the capacity for active locomotion, although some species can move if they are carried away by the current. Jellyfish and polyps (they live fixed on marine rocks) such as anemones and coral are the main representatives of this group.


read more
An Amateur’s New Way to Appreciate Nature

An Amateur’s New Way to Appreciate Nature

Like countless others, you’ve vowed this year to embark on a program dedicated to more exercise and action out of doors.  In response to the urging of many, you promised that this winter you were not going to let yourself sink comfortably into a padded chair before a crackling fireplace.  Instead of watching sports events or movies on your giant-screen, smart TV, or playing the most recent video games, you want to get out and exercise those underutilized muscles and bones while learning to appreciate the great outdoors.

So with that in mind, you set forth to arm yourself with the equipment that would be needed to indulge in some more productive activities for the season.  Skiing, ice skating, sledding, fishing, and camping are among the activities you feel would be appropriate for your new, more energetic winter program.   And you’ve even resolved to leave behind all electronic items except your smartphone.

So, sworn to uphold this promise, you set out to find the equipment and clothing needed for the coming season.  Naturally, a wardrobe that would meet the requirements of climate and environment are necessary.  Just one problem – you hate to shop.    Fortunately, you can find all you need and more at a site called Gander Mountain. Clothing, coats, gloves, boots, and other items are all available at more than favorable prices.  Acquiring these items would be a great first step towards committing to this new lifestyle.

But this more active lifestyle requires more than just the proper wardrobe.  Equipment – particularly supplies and equipment – are also necessary.  And how can you be assured of finding the best equipment that could be used for fishing, or camping, or hiking?  There again Gander Mountain is the place where you can acquire the equipment, but also learn the basic talents necessary to make your new lifestyle most enjoyable and attractive.  You hate shopping, but if you love saving money, you’ll be really impressed with the saving earned by applying a Groupon Coupon to your purchases.   40% off cold-weather gear and up to 70% of outlet items save you a lot.

With your new gear in hand, you are an amateur outdoorsman. “Amateur” in the sense that you can indulge in fishing and hunting more for the purpose of communing with Nature.  There is something elemental about waking up before sunrise to the sound of the tide coming in while you cast your rod into the surf.  After cooking some fresh-caught trout over a crackling campfire and enjoying it along with the taste of, hot cornbread, potatoes, and some apple cider, you can truly enjoy laying back and gazing at the stars while listening to the sounds of the forest at night.  But don’t worry, you can get up early and walk it all off in the morning.

read more
Secrets of successful wildlife watching

Secrets of successful wildlife watching

By being patient and starting with the animals that are easier to see and recognize, you will become familiar and feel safer when you move around in nature.

Walking in nature to observe wildlife is an activity that is becoming increasingly popular. Having the opportunity to spend hours outdoors, thanks to trips and excursions, is an excellent way to reduce stress and regain peace of mind. Furthermore, you have the opportunity to live unique experiences and learn more about the environment that surrounds us.

However, observing wildlife can be tricky and even dangerous if you don’t know-how. For this reason, we have written an article that collects a series of tips that will allow you to approach animals, in their natural habitat, in a correct, conscientious, and completely safe way.

Is it the first time? Start with the birds

Many dream of seeing a large predator in the wild such as, for example, a wolf. However, these species are very shy and difficult to see, especially for newbies. On the contrary, birds are animals more approachable by people, due to the fact that, depending on the type, they like to visit the same places.

Even if there are very shy bird species, without going too far, it will be easy to see some of the birds living in your garden, for example. Like the robin (pictured below), which some of you will already have had the opportunity to appreciate, perhaps in countryside areas. Also, a good way to become a wildlife watcher is to learn how to identify them. Take pictures, take notes, and, little by little, you will be able to recognize their silhouette in flight or details related to color, beak, and claws.

Trust the official guides

One of the mistakes many make is believing that they will be able to see a lynx simply by spending an afternoon in the Gran Paradiso National Park. Given the growing popularity of this activity, there are more and more biologists and other professionals dedicated to guiding tourists to these places in search of the more elusive animals.

These guides are familiar with the habits of the local wildlife and are able to track them. They are also in constant communication with farmers and other wildlife watchers, so they are a guarantee of success for observing animals in the wild.

We are talking about the so-called responsible tourism which serves to promote the conservation of nature. And also to assess the health of endemic species, without having to be hunted.

Learn to walk in nature

It is impossible to observe wildlife if you walk into a forest or protected area like an elephant in a Chinese china shop. It is important not to make noise, to walk slowly trying to ensure that your steps are softened as much as possible, without breaking branches or kicking stones.

You will have to pay attention to any movement in the trees or vegetation. As you gain experience, you will begin to move with greater ease, choosing the best places to see the different wild animals that surround you.

Always carry binoculars

Normally, nature guides provide accessories and tools such as spotting scopes and high-quality binoculars. If you are new to it, you can borrow it when there is something interesting to see. On the contrary, if you are passionate about this activity, it is right to buy quality binoculars. It will allow you to choose the one you are best with and you can use it with greater freedom.

Another option is the use of digital cameras. Although not designed for this purpose, the latest generation ones have a very powerful zoom. They will allow you to take snapshots that you can then calmly identify. Moreover, compared to the old reflex cameras they do not make any noise.

Learn to identify animals

One of the funniest activities, especially for children, is learning how to identify various wildlife animals. Today there are books and guides, equipped with photos and color illustrations, which will help you to recognize the different members of the same species. Over time, you can surprise friends and relatives by recognizing animals with a simple glance.

Furthermore, if you have a modern smartphone, you can take advantage of the large Internet library and search, in real-time, for information and photos on different living beings. There are also applications to recognize animals, such as iNaturalist.

Pick the right time

It is important to know that it is not possible to see all species at the same time of the year. In general, sunset and sunrise are the best times to observe wildlife, as the forest is quieter and hikers push the animals into hiding during the day.

Climatic conditions are also important. For example, it will be nearly impossible to see bears in winter, since they will spend all their time hibernating. On the contrary, for example, autumn is the perfect time to spot deer in northern Italy or to contemplate the stages of their courtship. While it will be almost impossible to see the lesser kestrel, which is a migratory bird.

Pay attention to the information signs

In national parks and bird watchers, it is quite common to find information signs, which will tell you which species are most common at certain times of the year or where you can find them. Often, real itineraries are also indicated that, hopefully, will increase the chances of observing wild animals.

Don’t rush or be superficial. It is worth spending a few minutes reading. The people who created these information signs know the area best. You will find essential information about the success of your excursion.

Be patient

It is the best advice we can give you. It is practically impossible for you to go out into the fresh air tomorrow and suddenly observe a herd of wolves hunting a deer. However, with the right experience and consistency, you can become one with nature and enjoy this beautiful hobby more and more.

By being patient and starting with the animals that are easier to see and recognize, you will become familiar and feel safer when you move around in nature. Observing sparrows and robins will lead you little by little to follow more complex paths and recognize more fascinating species.

read more
Key Aspects of Taking Good Care of Your Dog

Key Aspects of Taking Good Care of Your Dog

Dogs are universally known to be man’s best friends, giving owners and their families a lot of love and enjoyment. In return, they require a fair amount of tender loving care that might daunt many people who are considering keeping a dog as a pet. However, as millions of dog owners will vouch, the seemingly arduous tasks soon become a part of the daily routine and even the responsibilities of taking care will yield a lot of pleasure.

Some important aspects of dog care:

Naming Your Dog

Giving your dog a name is indeed one of the most pleasurable jobs that you will need to undertake very early in your relationship with your pet. Take as much care in selecting the name as you would do for your own children as both you and your pet would have to live with it for an entire lifetime. There are no set rules for naming your dog, and the most common ways of coming up with an appropriate one are usually based on their looks, behavior, special characteristics, etc. It is important to keep the name simple as the dog will also need to recognize it and learn to respond to it with time.

Pet Care Supplies

Just as you require many personal care items that are necessary for your comfort and happiness, the same rule applies to your dog. While the number of accessories pets require is far less than required by their owners, their importance is no less. You just need to step inside a well-stocked pet store and take the advice of the salespersons regarding the essentials and thereafter the luxuries that you could pick up. Some items like a collar, leash, feeding bowl, litter box, and blanket will be required immediately while there are many more that you can keep on adding to keep your dog hale and hearty.

Dog Food

There is nothing more important than the food you serve to your dog to keep him healthy. Usually, dogs are very eager feeders and eat anything that humans consume. However, you need to be to keep yourself informed and educated regarding the nutritional requirements of your dog, and also very important what they should not be eating at all. Ensure they have access to all the fresh clean water they can drink as prevention of dehydration is extremely important, especially during the summer months. When buying dog food try to procure the best you can, but verify that your pet likes the taste as otherwise, he will never be willing to eat enough. Buy only foods that are nutritionally balanced and complete to ensure they get all the nutrition they require. It is important not to under or overfeeds the dog as this is the easiest way of a health complication. Your vet will be able to tell you the ideal quantity of food your dog should consume.


Due to their boisterous nature, it is very easy for dogs to get messy and the problem is compounded by the fact that they are relatively inept at keeping themselves clean to the extent that will be preferred by the rest of your family. It is very important that your dog gets a periodic bath, and is groomed well so that its coat is kept clean and free from insects. It is also vital that you carry out periodic inspections of its nails, eyes, ears, and teeth to ensure that they are clean and free from infection. Trim the nails as often as necessary so that they don’t hurt either themselves or you.

read more
Herbivorous Dinosaurs: names, types, and characteristics

Herbivorous Dinosaurs: names, types, and characteristics

The amazing world of dinosaurs hides an endless number of striking species, biological adaptations, and also the development of different groups according to their feeding strategies. One of these most numerous groups is undoubtedly that of the herbivorous dinosaurs of the Jurassic, which devoured all kinds of leaves and plants that existed throughout the Mesozoic era. Thanks to the numerous and diverse studies of dinosaur remain that paleontology has carried out throughout history, today we can know in detail many of the species names and characteristics of herbivorous dinosaurs.

In this interesting article, you will discover all the information you need to learn more about the amazing world of herbivorous dinosaurs: names, types, and characteristics.

Characteristics of herbivorous dinosaurs and when they existed

Herbivorous dinosaurs needed to have a certain anatomical structure that would allow them to defend themselves against their fearsome carnivorous predators. In the following list we will see many of the main characteristics of herbivorous dinosaurs:

  • The dimensions: they were heavy and corpulent, with weights that varied according to species, from 0.5 tons to a staggering 123 tons. Due to their dimensions, they were not very agile or fast, in contrast to the fearsome carnivorous dinosaurs.
  • The anatomical structure of the neck: the structure of this part of the body of herbivorous dinosaurs was adapted for the optimal range of the plants and vegetables on which they fed.
  • The teeth: they were not very pointed and with large surfaces, adapted to be able to tear, crush, and digest the leaves. Their jaws were not able to move laterally to chew more effectively so they normally had to swallow whole leaves to later digest them in the stomach.
  • The stomach: it was large and presented characteristics that facilitated the intake. And processing of up to 200 kilograms of nutritious plant resources per day. For greater ease in the processing of plant nutrients, they swallowed small stones as gastroliths.

When Dinosaurs Existed: Mesozoic Era

Dinosaurs existed during the Mesozoic, Mesozoic, or Secondary Era, which is commonly known as ” The Age of Dinosaurs “since the presence of these incredible animals is the most remarkable event of that period in the history of life in the earth. Thus, the extensive “Age of Dinosaurs” includes much of the Mesozoic, as well as the entire Cenozoic or Tertiary Era.

If you want to learn more about it, you can read this other post in which we talk about various theories about why the dinosaurs became extinct.

What did herbivorous dinosaurs eat?

As we can well imagine, herbivorous dinosaurs based their diet on plant-based nutrients, mainly from the leaves of trees, shrubs and grassland vegetation that flooded the fertile lands of the Age of Dinosaurs with greenery.

According to the structure of their teeth and jaws, as well as the length of their necks or the presence of beaks and other anatomical structures related to food, herbivorous dinosaurs were capable of feeding on young shoots, ferns, and tree leaves. as well as somewhat more hardened plant resources such as fruits, pineapples or needle leaves of the amazing variety of plants existing at that time.

Types of herbivorous dinosaurs

The different types of herbivorous dinosaurs that existed were mostly terrestrial animals that lived in herds. Although some species preferred to live alone, occupying the extensive continental ecosystems. When it comes to grouping the great variety of species of herbivorous dinosaurs that existed. We can distinguish two main types:

  • Herbivorous sauropods: they moved quadruped, that is, on their four limbs. And had hips similar to those of lizards, as well as long necks and vast columnar structures. The molar parts of the sauropods were adapted to tear off the leaves and ingest them without being able to chew them efficiently.
  • Herbivorous ornichistios: their hips resembled those of birds, thus being able to move on their two hind limbs. Some species of this group had jaws and chewing structures in the shape of a bird’s beak. As well as scissor-shaped teeth, which allowed them both to extract the leaves. And fruits with precision and to crush them prior to their digestion.

Herbivorous Dinosaur Names – List of Examples

Thanks to paleontology, we can now know the main characteristics of herbivorous dinosaurs. That’s right, thanks to the numerous and varied records of bones, footprints, and even eggs, of herbivorous dinosaurs. Today we can know various anatomical and biological aspects of these fascinating animals. Here is a list of examples of herbivorous dinosaur names:

  • Apatosaurus
  • Ankylosaurus
  • Brachiosaurus
  • Brontosaurus
  • Camarasaurus
  • Cetiosaurus
  • Dicraeosaurus
  • Diplodocus
  • Gigantspinosaurus
  • Lusotitan
  • Mamenchisaurus
  • Spinophorosaurus
  • Stegosaurus
  • Pachycephalosaurus
  • Patagotitan mayorum
  • Parasaurolophus
  • Protoceratops
  • Psittacosaurus
  • Triceratops
read more
10 animal species where they are the leaders

10 animal species where they are the leaders

Traditionally it is believed that in the animal world males are bigger, stronger, and therefore those that dominate the herds. The reality is that in many species it is the females that play the role of leader, relegating the male to a secondary role.

On a day where women are the protagonists, it is important to highlight that the animal kingdom offers us extraordinary examples of matriarchal societies.

Killer whales

The family structure of the killer whales revolves around the females of the group. The matriarch or matriarchs are the ones who lead and they’re young remain for decades with them, forming very stable family structures.

Furthermore, these animals are one of the few species that can spend their entire lives with their mothers. Even matriarchs come to care for their own grandchildren, making them one of the few animals to reach menopause.


This mammal, which inhabits the Kalahari Desert region and the plains of southern Africa, is also governed by a matriarchal system.

They meet in herds of approximately 50 individuals and it is the females that lead the way for these animal nomads. In the meerkat kingdom, females dominate and occupy all the important functions within their colonies: there is an alpha female, a lookout, those in charge of caring for the young, among many other tasks.


Elephants are the largest land animals, and also one of the best examples of a matriarchal society.

Often in the wild, the hierarchy of animals is established by their strength but elephants prefer to age and wisdom. Herds are usually commanded by the older female. And despite the fact that the matriarch is usually bigger in size than the others, what really matters to hold this position is her experience. The matriarch is the one who knows best how to find water and defend the young. This experienced female gets to lead from 8 to 100 elephants.

Nether Monkfish

This fish, which lives in deep waters, stands out for having a luminescent lure on its head that it uses to attract its prey.

When scientists discovered this species, they realized that all of its specimens were female and that almost all of them had a parasite that inhabited their reproductive parts. After several studies, it was discovered that these “parasites” were actually the males of the species.

These just born males must quickly find a female, as they are unable to live independently and fuse with her. When the female is ready to fertilize, the male provides his male cells for fertilization.


This primate that lives on the island of Madagascar has an interesting social structure. It can be very difficult to tell the difference between males and females. They have the same physical characteristics and are the same size. They live in groups of about 20 specimens and establish matriarchal societies, in which the females dominate the males socially. It is they, therefore, who feed first and who has priority in grooming. They exercise this domain through attacks, persecutions, bites, etc.

According to a study published in Science Daily, the female gender is dominant even when outnumbered. Although there are more males than females who continue to lead the pack.


Within hyena herds, which can be made up of groups of up to 60 individuals, size is what matters. They command the herd because they are significantly larger and more aggressive than males.

Despite their fame as butchers, hyenas make excellent group hunters. When they kill their prey, the dominant females feed first. The males eat what the females leave them and if it is not enough they look for some abandoned carcass in the savanna.

Kay Holecamp, an American biologist, studied the behavior of spotted hyenas for more than 20 years. In her investigations, she determined that these animals are characterized by a strict and complicated order of hierarchy within the same group, where each of them has a different rank.

Mole rats

This East African mammal is governed by a matriarchal mandate of a single alpha female. The queen is the only breeding female in the colony, preventing all other females from reproducing through her aggressive dominance and application of social roles, which often involves physically pushing other members of the colony.

Picofino phalarope

The picofino phalarope ( Phalaropus lobatus ) is, without a doubt, a somewhat atypical bird, since to its habits as a swimmer it is necessary to add its inverse sexual dimorphism, according to which the females present a showier plumage and are larger than their companions.

To mate, the females are the ones that chase the desired males. Fighting with rival females to gain access to the desired mates. Once the eggs are laid, the males are in charge of incubating them, who also have the task of raising the chickens over the 20 days that it may take to develop. Also, females mate with multiple males during one season.


Bonobos considered the closest living ‘relatives’ to man, is known for the dominant role of females in groups. Somewhat uncommon in the world of mammals, despite the fact that males are stronger and larger.

Faced with the law of the strongest, which usually governs chimpanzees, the leaders of bonobos are usually very conciliatory. There are various theories of how they have formed such stable groups since. In fact, females are more aggressive and irritable than males.

According to a study by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, the social dominance of female bonobos over males is not related to their ability to associate with each other, as previously thought, but rather to the use of sex as a pacifying tool, which serves as a social union, thus reducing their stress levels.


And finally, we go to the world of insects. Ants have matriarchal societies very similar to those of bees. With a queen and thousands of workers, who keep the anthill always active. The few males that exist fulfill reproductive functions, and sometimes not even that. In fact, there is a species of Amazon ants (Mycocepurus smithii) composed only of females.

read more
How does White Borneo Kratom compare to White Maeng Da

How does White Borneo Kratom compare to White Maeng Da

If you are looking for something that is a healthy alternative to your daily beverage of tea and coffee and can also infuse you with energy and other benefits at the same time, Kratom is definitely the answer for you. A herb that is specialized in different parts of South-East Asia, it has gained so much popularity and relevance that people from all over the world are indulging in it. Their main characteristic property includes stimulation, pain relief, and a sense of euphoria on the consumption of high amounts. It can be also used for a number of medicinal purposes. The leaves of the Kratom are the main components that are crushed and consumed. It is undoubtedly one of the most sought-after herbs nowadays.

The classification of Kratom is mainly done on the basis of the geographical location where they are cultivated and the kind of strains that they have. The Thai and the White Borneo Kratom are the two most common types along with the Maeng variety. In terms of strain, it can be of red, green, or white in color. The different strains specialize in a different type of utility and many people consume it for that particular use itself. For example, the white-veined ones have high stimulatory value but are not so effective in pain relief as the red and green ones. In this article, a general comparison has been between the White Borneo and the White Maeng type.

White Borneo Kratom

This type of Kratom specifically grows in Borneo and is also cultivated there to be used locally as well as globally. The leaves which ripen are the main source of this type.

Uses of White Borneo Kratom 

  • Provides you with the required energy

In case you feel completely drained out at the end of the day and wish to feel more energetic, this is the best for you. Lethargy can also be kept at bay with it.

  • Helps to tolerate pain better

You will develop more endurance to pain. This is mainly due to the increased stimulatory effect of the body and the function of mitragynine present in it.

  • Helps to deal with insomnia-

It helps you to sleep properly in case you could not do so earlier. You can even indulge in deep sleep by using it.

Dosage of White Borneo Kratom

It depends on what you want out of it. If you are looking for more focus 3 to 6 grams should do the job. However, if euphoria and pain relief is on the cards, then you may need to amp to 7 to 9 grams.

White Maeng Da

This type of Kratom is a relatively new strain but scores high on the strength aspect. Derived from Mitragyna speciosa, the leaves of the tree are used to make this Kratom. Along with the strength, the aroma is very strong too as it contains different alkaloids and flavonoids required for it.

Uses of White Maeng Da 

  • Replacement for coffee for energy

Many people who were reliant for coffee for their daily dose of energy are now shifting to Maeng Da type of Kratom. This is mainly because it is a healthy alternative. The energy provided to the body is of clean type.

  • Enhancement of cognitive ability-

When you drink Maeng Da regularly, you can avoid the jitters. Thus, you can go about with your day to day activities in a better manner with superior cognition.

  • As a remedy for depression-

People who are shy and introverted in nature can benefit from this strain of Kratom. It has the ability to boost your self-confidence as well and can help you face situations that can make you anxious otherwise. Therefore, your social life will definitely improve.

Dosage of White Maeng Da

The different dosages have different functions. For beginners, 2 grams is enough while people who are at the intermediate stage can take 4 grams. If you are already used to it then a quantity of 8-10 grams will be effective.

Giving a verdict on which is better is not possible. This article intends to provide a brief description about two of them. You can make your choice according to the choice and requirements that you have.

read more

Things to consider when choosing a travel trailer RV cover

What will make your car to stay in good condition always? The secret lies with purchasing the travel trailer RV cover which is the best on the market. If you don’t have a garage, it is vital that you have a cover for your car. It will protect your car from dents, dings, hazardous weather conditions, and scratches. For the best protection, you will need to look for one which fits your car properly.

It might be tough for you when it comes to purchasing a car cover. How are you going to know what type will be suitable for you? What are some of the things you need to have in mind when you are making the purchase of the car cover?

Having the right information will make choosing the cover very easy. Here are some of the information that you should know:

  1. Types: There are various types of car covers which you can readily choose from. The most common ones are water-resistant, waterproof, and cotton covers. Water-resistant and waterproof car covers are perfect to use for your outdoor while the cotton type is best for indoor use only.
  1. Car model: It will be your pleasure if the entire car is covered without leaving any art exposed to dangers. You will have to purchase a cover that will wholly protect your car. Before you buy the car cover, you have to get the right measurement which will protect your car fully. If some of the car parts are exposed to the UV or other dangers, then it can easily damage your car. Your priority has to be getting a cover that will protect your entire car.

  1. Outdoor or indoor car covers: There are people who don’t find it necessary to cover their cars when they are stored indoors. What they forget is that moisture and dust are a concern when you store the car indoors. You have to find out whether you are storing your travel trailer RV outdoor or indoors so that you get the right cover for it. The car covers for indoor tend to be lighter when you compare them to those which are used for outdoor. It is also possible to use the outdoor car covers for indoor with the only problem being the breathability. The covers for indoors are normally designed to be breathable so that heat doesn’t condense and get trapped inside the cover. Keep reading how to evolve snom.
  1. Durability: This is the ability of the cover to withstand all types of the condition during its lifespan. At this juncture, the manufacturer’s warranty is very important. You will have to purchase a product which is durable and that will be a good value for your money. Getting a cover with great quality will ensure that you get long life service thereby reducing the high maintenance fee. You need to be assured of the durability of being given a warranty on your purchase. When a producer gives a cover of the warranty, chances are that they are selling a genuine cover.
  1. Materials: The materials used to construct the covers are very important. There are various types of materials that can be selected depending on what you like. Choosing the right material will depend on whether you are keeping the car indoors or outdoor.If you stay in a location where the temperatures tend to be warm and the light is bright, you have to get a car cover with a UV resistant and made of breathable materials. But in case you live in an area which has frequent storms, it will be wise if you are looking for a car cover which can resist water. Your driving frequency will also determine the type of material you will go for. If you are ever on the move with your car, then you will want a cover which you can easily put on and off. But if you are planning to keep your car for a very long time without driving it, then you will have to consider a material which will fit the body very tight.
  1. Type of hazards: Different covers tend to protect the car efficiently from various risks. If your main hazard is dust, then your cover choice will be different from someone whose main risk is UV. That is why you will need to consider the factors carefully to ensure that you pick the one which is most suitable and most efficient cover best for your particular purpose. You need to select as per the purpose that you intend for it to serve you better. When you make specific picking, it is better than going for general protection.
  1. Budget: This is a major factor that you will need to consider before you pick a cover for your car. You will need to choose what is within your budget. In most cases, the prices of the cover are directly proportionate to their value but at times, you can get affordable covers which are quality. Ensure that you set a reasonable budget which will give you a cover which will be a good value for your money.
  1. Cover depth/thickness: The functionality and efficiency of the cover will greatly depend on how thick it is. In the process, it determines the cover’s protection efficiency. This is a factor that tends to have an impact on other factors such as durability, product quality, effectiveness, and cost.

A cover that is thicker tends to give better protection from various hazards as compared to one that is lighter.

read more

Are you in trouble with a drug test?

If that is the case then you need a find as solutions which can help you get the job done and if that happens that will make the process much easier and you will not need to worry about anything else. Make sure that you visit and find out more on this subject as this will help you to get the job done in quick time and you need not worry about anything more. There are many people who are really interested in get to overcome this but it is never easy and do not know how it goes. There are many options in the market which can help you to get the job done. Once that happens, the process is very simple.

Since there are lots of products in the market and some of them are very expensive and hence one needs to work hard and look for solutions which work well and also give very good results and it has to work well and if it does then things become much easier and you will not have a problems. This is something very important that one needs to keep track of. One should know the the detox method works well and gives good results and this is something that can work wonders and get your over the line and this is something very important that you note. Make sure that by doing this you are not taking anyone by surprise and this is something that you need to take note of. One has to make sure that they overcome the problem of screening and this is something very important that they need to take a note of. Once that happens then they need not wry about anything else. This is something, one need to keep not of, as this can be make or break from your career and once that happens things will not be the same. It is very important that you know, this well. It is something very important that you go in for a visit and that will make the process much easier. One should know that it is never easy to get rid of the toxins and once that happens then things will be tough. So it is important that you take good care of things. Detox tablets are much better to go in for rather then going in for Synthetic urine and this is something very important that you need to keep track of.

Since this can be a serious affect on your growth one has to be very clear with what should be done. This is something very important that you need to keep note of when you take the drug test and once that happens you make the process much easier and you will not have a problem. There are lots of different ways by which one can completely ensure that you are going to pass a drag test and that will happen if you plan well, this is something of serious nature which you need to keep track of. Once that happens that will make the process much easier and you will never have an issue. If you really want to it is something important that you need to keep know and look for a website called a visit, which can give you very good information and make the process much easier.

If you are someone who trying to overcome the problem. Then has to look for a solution which can help one overcome the problem. This something one must keep track of. One should keep in mind, that they need to and this is something very important. Once you do that then things will be much easier. If you do not do this in the right way then there could be some issues, with if that is not taking seriously then you may lose your job and this is something very important. One has to work hard and look for solutions. Many people are not sure how to go ahead and what to do. People are very confused and are looking for some way to really reduce the the complexity for losing the option. This is something very important which one must keep a track of. Once that happens then the process becomes tough. If one is not able to clear the test then there could be a problem. This is something very important. With so many people who are there and are looking for solutions to get the test cleared. One should know that it is never easy and people may face some issues. For this they need to be sure of what they are going in for. One should make sure that they go in to look for a website called a visit and that will make the process easier.

read more

Best places to enjoy music online and free

Music has become the greatest source of relaxation these days. It does not matter where you are, whether you are in your house, college, office or in travel through car or public transport, you can listen to music everywhere and this has become possible because of the availability of smart gadgets. There are many gadgets available that can let you listen to your favourite songs on the go. A few years ago, people used to carry walk man and other portable CD players to enjoy music but long gone that time as now you can easily enjoy your best music through your smartphone. There are hundreds of applications available on the internet that can help you listen music and download that to your device for continuous enjoyment. Before we discuss the different platforms through which you can enjoy music, we will first put some light on the importance of music itself. also tells you the best ways to listen music anytime and anywhere through your mobile devices and personal computers.

Importance of music: No one can deny the importance of music in lives as it is the best source to enjoy and relax your mind. Some of the best advantages of listening to your favourite artists and genres are enlisted below:

  • Music increases the productivity of your work: as per researches, it has been proven that when you are doing a work which requires less concentration and is boring, you can bring fun in that task by listening music along with performing the task. For instance, when you are washing dishes, playing music will increase the fun and you would never get bored
  • Relaxation remedy: when our mood is gloomy, we listen to our favourite song and feel better, this is the relaxation that music brings in our lives and everyone has a different taste and gets better through different type of music
  • The best part of this remedy is that it is not limited, we have several artists and a lot of different kinds of music to listen to. In every mood, we can enjoy different type of songs!

No person on this earth can deny the importance of music because at some stage of life, everyone depends on it and feeds his soul through it. This website tells us different ways to listen to music online and that too free of any cost.

Different ways to enjoy music free: It was not a simple task to enjoy music in the past but now things have totally changed and you can download as many songs to your computer and mobile device as you want. There are so many popular platforms to enjoy the music for free. You just need to research a bit to find the one that suits your taste.

The number of platforms has increased many folds after the internet boomed, a lot of people started their earning through music selling. All of these platforms are legally providing you with music and there are more applications as well for which legality is not confirmed. You should always listen to the music which is available through legal means. This means that these applications have a licence to sell music and they are not breaching any copyright laws. In order to make sure that you are not listening to your favourite song through illegal means, remember to read the privacy policies and detailed review about a particular app. Most of these apps demand a minimal subscription fee to enjoy the full version of their application and website. It is not harm to pay that amount and enjoy the music for unlimited number of songs by different artists. Downloading songs through these applications is another edge which brings peace in your life by not using the internet data to stream for music all the time.

In order to read detailed reviews about these applications and how they work, and select the best source as per your requirements. Listening to music was never so easy before, now all you have to do is to download or stream the content and play it through your smartphone and you are good to go! If you want to stay updated and find the best music coming to your life without any effort, subscribing to these applications is a big plus. You can always cancel your subscription if you do not find any fun and can switch to a better one. Sound cloud is free and after streaming a song, it lets you listen to that song for a number of times without using your active data connection because it saves the song in its cache. Once the cache is cleared your song would go away. It is not a permanent method to save your internet but it helps to some extent.

Sharing your favourite music: Listening and sharing music with your loved ones is very tempting and you can enjoy this through these applications. Internet has made your life very easy regarding the enjoyment stuff and now you can avail different benefits of watching and listening to your favourite shows online. Previously, people used to burn CDs and distribute those to friends to enjoy, this was somewhat an illegal mean to do because distribution is prohibited under copyright laws. With these legal applications, you can share the links to your favourite songs and can also share the complete playlists and albums and enjoy the music together with your loved ones.

read more

Amber C. Keller

Nature is running out of people who have the real potential to save it. That is why we are on a lookout for people who can volunteer to join the cause. Hi, I am Keller and I just started out as a volunteer and you can see where I am now. I will be very much glad if you can join me and save the planet and give it a better shape.


Visit Now!

Museums and Collections

Yellowstone Heritage and Research Center near the park’s north entrance in Gardiner, Montana.